The fossilised ‘London Artefact’ has gained notoriety in recent years following its display in an exhibition of anomalous artefacts in the year 2000. It is a perfect example of the anomalous nature of some archaeological discoveries. On the one hand, we are presented with a hammer, clearly of human design; While on the other hand, it is embedded in a rock found in a region formed of predominantly cretaceous rock.
The rock was found in June, 1934 sitting loose on a rock ledge beside a waterfall near London, Texas.
The site is part of a large geographical zone called the Edwards Plateau. It primarily consists of Cretaceous rock.
A recent radiocarbon-dating test was performed on a sample of wood removed from the interior of the handle. The results showed inconclusive dates ranging from the present to 700 years ago.
The sandstone, within which the hammer has become embedded was dated by dr. A. W. Med of the British Geological Research Centre.
The Hammer is identical to commonly used 19th century miners hammers, of American provenance.
It was soon pointed out by the geologist NCSE researcher John Cole that minerals dissolved from ancient strata can harden around a recent object, making it look impressive to someone unfamiliar with geological processes. He said of it:
The stone is real, and it looks impressive to someone unfamiliar with geological processes. How could a modern artefact be stuck in Ordovician rock? The answer is that the concretion itself is not Ordovician. Minerals in solution can harden around an intrusive object dropped in a crack or simply left on the ground if the source rock (in this case, reportedly Ordovician) is chemically soluble (Cole, 1985).
The Wolfsegg Iron, also known as the The Salzburg Cube, is a small cuboid mass of iron that was found buried in Tertiary lignite in Wolfsegg, Austria, in 1885. It weighs 785 grams and measures 67 x 67 x 47mm. Four of its sides are roughly flat, while the two remaining sides (opposite each other) are convex. A fairly deep groove is incised all the way around the object, about mid-way up its height. Originally identified as being of meteoric origin, a suggestion later ruled out by analysis, it seems most likely that it is a piece of cast iron used as ballast in mining machinery.
The Iron was reportedly discovered when a workman at the Braun iron foundry in Schondorf, Austria, was breaking up a block of lignite that had been mined at Wolfsegg. In 1886, mining engineer Adolf Gurlt reported on the object to the Natural History Society of Bonn, noting that the object was coated with a thin layer of rust, was made of iron, and had a specific gravity of 7.75. Other early studies of the object appeared in contemporary editions of the scientific journals Nature and L’Astronomie, the object identified as being a fossil meteorite. A plaster cast was made of the object shortly before the end of the 19th century, as the original had suffered from being handled, and had had samples cut from it by researchers.
The object was analysed in 1966-67 by the Vienna Naturhistorisches Museum using electron-beam microanalysis, which found no traces of nickel, chromium or cobalt in the iron, suggesting that it was not of meteoric origin, while the lack of sulphur indicated that it is not a pyrite. Because of its low magnesium content, Dr. Gero Kurat of the Museum and Dr. Rudolf Grill of the Geologische Bundesanstalt of Vienna thought that it might be cast iron, Grill suggesting that similar rough lumps had been used as ballast in early mining machinery.
The cast is currently kept in the Oberösterreichischen Landesmuseen in Linz, Austria, where the original object was also exhibited from 1950 to 1958, while the original cuboid itself is held by the Heimathaus Museum of Vöcklabruck, Austria.
The Wolfsegg Iron is claimed by some as an out-of-place artifact (OOPArt), and it is often stated as a fact in paranormal literature that it disappeared without trace in 1910, from the Salzburg Museum. In fact, as mentioned above, it is at the Heimathaus Museum in Vöcklabruck, Austria, which is where the above photo was taken. Other writers also erroneously describe it as “a perfectly machined steel cube”.
Grady, Monica M.; A. L. Graham (2000). Catalogue of Meteorites: with special reference to those represented in the collection of the Natural History Museum, London. Cambridge University Press. p. 529. ISBN 0521663032.
Noorbergen, Rene (2001). Secrets of the Lost Races: New Discoveries of Advanced Technology in Ancient Civilizations. TEACH Services, Inc.. p. 43. ISBN 1572581980.
Short, Robert (2003). Out of the Stars. Buy Books. p. 69. ISBN 0741415046.
Sagan, Carl; Jerome Agel (2000). Carl Sagan’s Cosmic Connection. Cambridge University Press. p. 206. ISBN 0521783038.
Voor de ontdekking van het wiel en het moderne schrijven, deed een prehistorische beschaving in het noorden van Mesopotamië aan handel, bewerkte koper en ontwikkelde de eerste sociale klassen op basis van macht en rijkdom.
Bewijs van de beschaving welke de basis vormde voor het stedelijke leven zoals we dat nu kennen in het gehele Midden Oosten, ligt onder drie grote heuvels zo’n 5 kilometer van Raqqa in Sirië. Dit melden Amerikaanse en Sirische archeologen.
De heuvels, zo’n 17 meter hoog, omvatten zo’n 120 vierkante meter en behelzen hiermee ook de ruïnes van Tell Zeidan, een voor-stedelijke gemeenschap daterend van 6.000 tot 4.000 v.Chr.
In die tijd was er grotendeels één gemeenschappelijke cultuur, genaamd Ubaid, wat leidde tot het ontstaan van de eerste ware stedelijke centra in de daaropvolgende Uruk periode (4.000 tot 3.100 v. Chr.).
Archaeologists are stumped after finding a 100-year-old Swiss watch in an ancient tomb that was sealed more than 400 years ago. They believed they were the first to visit the Ming dynasty grave in Shangsi, southern China, since its occupant’s funeral.
But inside they uncovered a miniature watch in the shape of a ring marked ‘Swiss’ that is thought to be just a century old. The mysterious timepiece was encrusted in mud and rock and had stopped at 10:06 am.
Watches were not around at the time of the Ming Dynasty and Switzerland did not even exist as a country, an expert pointed out.
The archaeologists were filming a documentary with two journalists when they made the puzzling discovery. ‘When we tried to remove the soil wrapped around the coffin, suddenly a piece of rock dropped off and hit the ground with metallic sound,’ said Jiang Yanyu, former curator of the Guangxi Museum. ‘We picked up the object, and found it was a ring.
‘After removing the covering soil and examining it further, we were shocked to see it was a watch,’ he added.
The Ming Dynasty – or the Empire of the Great Ming – was the ruling dynasty in China from 1368 to 1644.